Our Sun, located at the center of our solar system, is a nuclear fireball. Radiating energy in form of light and infrared reactions. Approximately 27 million Fahrenheits at its core.
Space on the other hand, which has extreme temperature conditions, is minus 455 degrease Fahrenheit colder as soon as we exit the main earth atmosphere.
If we take the space as the cosmic background of our stars, why is the space so cold and our atmosphere so warm?
At home, we all have experienced that water boils faster than it gets fixed inside an ice tray. It’s always easy to make a cup of tea than waiting for the ice to freeze. That is simply because the heat energy moves faster than that of atoms which are colder.
Heat energy, emitted from the sun in form of radiation and infrared waves, travels through the cosmos migrating from hotter objects to cooler ones. The molecules that come in contact with these energy waves get excited, which causes them too to heat up. This is how heat energy travels to Earth.
But, these radiation waves only excite the molecules and matter that are directly in its path. Everything else that does not come in contact with its path stays chilled. This is why we feel colder at night.
Earth has conduction, convection, and radiation. Because the molecules are packed and are at close range. When the direct heat energy from the sun hits the earth’s atmosphere, the molecules around start burning up passing the heat to nearby molecules at a faster speed. It is the chain reaction that warms up the molecules around the sun’s path which are at closer enough range to bump into each other.
The space, on the other hand, is basically empty. A very few gas molecules are available in space, which is particularly very far from each other. That makes it difficult for the molecules to pass the heat around. Which makes the space colder as we know it to be.